4. What are fertility assessment options?
Male Testing – Semen analysis is a fundamental tool used to diagnose male infertility. This fertility evaluation may include CASA (computer assisted sperm analysis, anti-sperm antibody screen), DNA fragmentation assay, scrotal ultrasound, testicular biopsy, and genetic testing. An initial detailed medical history, a general physical exam, blood tests, and infectious disease screening are all part of male fertility assessment.
Female Testing – Female fertility assessment typically includes a detailed medical history, a general physical exam, and a range of tests including blood work to check hormone levels associated with ovulation, such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone. Additional hormone tests may be performed to determine the number of eggs available. Based on the results of the fertility assessment, a fertility test such as an ultrasound, sonohysterography, hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, and genetic testing may be performed.
Ovulation Induction – This procedure uses medication to increase the number of eggs ovulated per cycle. Ovulation induction can increase the chances of pregnancy by producing more than one mature follicle per menstrual cycle and can also be used as part of an egg retrieval cycle. Through blood tests and ultrasounds, patients undergoing ovulation induction are monitored for two to three weeks. Medications used in ovulation inductions include clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotropins (FSH).
Embryo Testing – Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A), a genetic test performed on embryos, detects any abnormal chromosome numbers. PGT-A is performed on a developing embryo prior to embryo transfer in IVF treatment.